Air Conditioning and Heating R-12 All Caterpillar Machines – Glossary of Terms

Accumulator – The accumulator is a component of an air conditioning system with an orifice tube. The accumulator is located between the evaporator coil and the compressor. The accumulator’s function is to separate liquid refrigerant and oil from the refrigerant that is mostly vaporized. Removing the liquid refrigerant and removing the oil protects the compressor from liquid slugging. Some air conditioning systems have an accumulator that contains a desiccant. The desiccant will remove moisture from the system.

Ambient Air – Outside air

Charge – The charge is a predetermined amount of refrigerant that is put into the air conditioning system. The charge is measured in units of weight.

Compressor – The compressor is a component in the system that increases the pressure of the refrigerant. The compressor will cause the refrigerant to flow through the system.

Condenser – The condenser is a component in the system that changes the refrigerant from a high pressure, high temperature vapor to a high pressure, high temperature liquid.

Contaminants – Dirt, water, and air

Desiccant – The desiccant is used in the receiver-dryer or in the accumulator. The desiccant removes moisture from the air conditioning system.

Detecting – Detecting is finding the source of the problem in the system.

Diaphragm – The diaphragm is a rubber-like material. The diaphragm divides the upper chamber and the lower chamber in the thermostatic expansion valve.

Discharge Side – The discharge side of an air conditioning system is the outlet from the compressor to the outlet of the condenser coil. The discharge side is also referred to as the high side of an air conditioning system.

Evacuating – Evacuating is the removal of air and moisture from the air conditioning system.

Evaporation – Evaporation is the process of changing a liquid to a vapor.

Evaporator – The evaporator is the component in the air conditioning system that changes the refrigerant from a liquid to a vapor. The evaporator transfers heat to the liquid refrigerant in order to convert the refrigerant into a vapor.

Expansion Valve – The expansion valve is a component in the air conditioning system that regulates the flow of liquid refrigerants into the evaporator.

Fluid – Fluid is a liquid or a gas.

Flush – Flushing is the removal of foreign material and oil from the air conditioning system. You must flush the system with fluid that is approved. The fluid must be approved by SAE. The fluid must be approved by ISO.

Foaming – Foam that can be seen in the sight glass is an indication of low refrigerant level in the system.

Freeze – Freezing causes a liquid to become a solid.

Frost – Frost may be caused by a blockage somewhere in the system.

Gas – A gas is a substance that contains very small particles which float in the air. A gas does not contain liquid or solid particles.

Graduated Container – A graduated container is a glass container with markings on the side of the container. The markings are used in order to measure the amount of fluid in the container. The markings normally have units of ounces or units of milliliters.

Heat – Thermal energy

Identifier – The identifier is an instrument that is used for testing the system. The identifier is used for determining the type of refrigerant that is in the system. The identifier is also used for determining the percentage of air that is in the system.

In-Line Dryer – The in-line dryer is a component in the air conditioning system that removes moisture from the system. The in-line dryer filters the refrigerant. The in-line dryer will have a quick disconnect in the system. The in-line dryer contains an orifice tube.

Latent Heat – Latent heat is the amount of heat that is required to cause a change of state between a liquid and a gas of the refrigerant without changing the temperature.

Latent Heat of Condensation – Latent heat of condensation is the quantity of heat that is released from a vapor as the vapor is changed to a liquid at a constant temperature.

Latent Heat of Evaporation – The quantity of heat that is absorbed by a liquid as the liquid is changed from a liquid into a vapor at a constant temperature.

Leak Detector – The leak detector is a device that is used to locate leaks in the air conditioning system.

Liquid Line – The liquid line is the line that connects the condenser coil, the dryer receiver, and the expansion valve together in an expansion valve system. The liquid line is also the line that connects the condenser coil and the orifice tube together in an orifice tube system.

Magnetic Clutch – The magnetic clutch is a device which is used as a coupling between the pulley and the compressor. The magnetic clutch turns the compressor on and off. An electric current activates the clutch.

Manifold Gauge Set – The manifold gauge set contains gauges and hoses that are used to measure the pressures in the air conditioning system.

Moisture – Moisture is water that is in the air or water that is in the refrigerant.

Moisture Indicator – The moisture indicator is a device that uses color to indicate if the material in the dryer is fully saturated. The moisture indicator will display a pink color or a white color if the dryer is saturated. The moisture indicator will display a blue color if the dryer is capable of absorbing more moisture.

Orifice Tube – The orifice tube has a body that is made of plastic with a metal tube inside. The orifice tube is a metering control. The orifice tube is located between the high pressure side and the low pressure side in the orifice tube system.

Overcharge – A system is overcharged when an excessive amount of refrigerant is present in the air conditioning system.

Partial Charge – A partial charge is less than a full charge of refrigerant. An air conditioning system has a partial charge when there is not enough refrigerant in the system.

Performance Test – The performance test is the notation of temperatures and pressures under controlled conditions. The performance test is used in order to determine if the air conditioning system is operating normally.

Refrigerant Quick-Check Procedure – The refrigerant quick-check procedure is a brief inspection of the system. No instruments are required in order to perform a refrigerant quick-check procedure.

Receiver-Dryer – The receiver-dryer is the component in the air conditioning system that removes the contaminants (moisture) from the circuit. The receiver-dryer is also a storage area for a small amount of liquid refrigerant. The receiver-dryer may also have a pressure switch that deactivates the compressor if the pressure of the refrigerant is lower than approximately 175 kPa (25 psi).

Reclaim – The air conditioner refrigerant that is reclaimed must meet SAE J1991 or SAE J2099 standards. The reclaiming of air conditioner refrigerant requires processes that are available only at a remanufacturing facility.

Recover – Recovering is the removal of the air conditioner refrigerant from the air conditioner system. The refrigerant must be stored in an approved container. The refrigerant is not required to be tested or processed when the refrigerant is recovered from the system.

Recycle – The recycling of the refrigerant is usually completed at the site or at the service shop. The refrigerant can be cleaned by separating the oil from the refrigerant. The refrigerant can be cleaned by passing the refrigerant through a filter dryer. In order for the refrigerant to be considered recycled, the refrigerant must meet SAE J1991 or SAE J2099 standards. The recycled refrigerant must meet these standards in order to be used in an air conditioning system.

Refrigerant – The refrigerant is the fluid that is used in the air conditioning system. The refrigerant removes heat from the operator’s compartment.

Refrigerant Oil – Refrigerant oil is the oil that is used in the air conditioning system. The refrigerant oil lubricates the compressor.

Sight Glass – The sight glass is used to observe the flow of refrigerant in the air conditioning system. The sight glass is located at the top of the receiver-dryer or in the line that is leaving the receiver-dryer.

Stabilize – If the performance of the system is constant, the system is stabilized.

Subcooling – The additional cooling of the refrigerant in the bottom of the condenser after the refrigerant has changed from a vapor to a liquid.

Suction Side – The suction side is the connection that is between the evaporator coil and the compressor.

Superheat – The additional heating of the refrigerant in the bottom of the evaporator after the refrigerant has changed from a liquid to a vapor.

Temperature of Saturation – At the temperature of saturation, a liquid will change into a vapor and a vapor changes into a liquid. The temperature of saturation depends on the pressure of the fluid. The temperature of saturation increases when the pressure of a fluid increases.

Vapor – Gas

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